Lab 8: HashMap

Introduction #

In this lab, you’ll work on MyHashMap, an implementation of the Map61B interface, which represents a hash map. This will be very similar to Lab 7, except this time we’re building a Hash Map rather than a Tree Map.

Please use the usual git commands to pull the skeleton. If you are experiencing a merge conflict, refer to the special git pull commands listed on the Lab06 spec.

After you’ve completed your implementation, you’ll compare the performance of your implementation to a list-based Map implementation ULLMap as well as the built-in Java HashMap class (which also uses a hash table). We’ll also compare the performance of MyHashMap when it uses different data structures to be the buckets.

Lab Logistics #

Similar to last week’s lab, lab 8 will also feature a live staff presentation of the entire solution. With that being said, there are a few changes of note:

No photos or videos will be allowed while the staff presentation is ongoing, in order to facilitate active participation.

We are aware that students may be distributing the staff solution. To ensure that only students who attend lab use the staff solution, we will be collecting your fa22-s*** numbers. Any student who matches the staff solution and is not on record as having attended lab will be subject to the academic misconduct process.

In addition, staff will be releasing the solution incrementally during lab section, so

please come at the start of lab.

Staff is under no obligation to reshare any part of the solution missed due to student absence or tardiness. Typical lab sessions will include a mix of interleaved, incremental student coding and staff solution sharing sessions.

Again, lab attendance is NOT mandatory this week.

MyHashMap #

Overview #

We’ve created a class MyHashMap in MyHashMap.java, with very minimal starter code. Your goal is to implement all of the methods in the Map61B interface from which MyHashMap inherits, except for remove, keySet and iterator. For remove, keySet and iterator, you should throw an UnsupportedOperationException. These will be optional and not tested by the autograder.

Note that your code will not compile until you implement all the methods of Map61B. You can implement methods one at a time by writing the method signatures of all the required methods, but throwing UnsupportedOperationExceptions for the implementations, until you get around to actually writing them.

Skeleton Code #

You might recall from lecture that when we build a hash table, we can choose a number of different data structures to be the buckets. The classic approach is to choose a LinkedList. But we can also choose ArrayLists, TreeSets, or even other crazier data structures like PriorityQueues or even other HashSets!

ht-buckets

During this lab, we will try out hash tables with different data structures for each of the buckets, and see empirically if there is an asymptotic difference between using different data structures as hash table buckets. Note that you will only need to complete one implementation within MyHashMap.java to receive full credit.

You can maybe imagine that if we implemented MyHashMap without any care, it would take a lot of effort with Find + Replace to be able to change out the bucket type with a different bucket type. For example, if we wanted to change all our ArrayList buckets to LinkedList buckets, we would have to Find + Replace for all occurrences of ArrayList and replace that with LinkedList. This is not ideal.

The purpose of the starter code is to have an easier way to try out different bucket types with MyHashMap. It accomplishes this through polymorphism and inheritance, which we learned about earlier this semester. It also makes use of factory methods, which are used to create objects.

Again, you are only required to complete one implementation for lab credit: MyHashMap, as long as it uses the generic Collections interface. Please try using the default LinkedList implementation, then make sure it correctly uses the generic Collections interface.

We will use factory methods to create the buckets. The inheritance structure of the starter files is as follows:

Map61B.java
└── MyHashMap.java
    ├── MyHashMapALBuckets.java
    ├── MyHashMapHSBuckets.java
    ├── MyHashMapLLBuckets.java
    ├── MyHashMapPQBuckets.java
    └── MyHashMapTSBuckets.java

MyHashMap implements the Map61B interface through use of a hash table. In the starter code, we give the instance variable private Collection<Node>[] buckets, which is the underlying data structure of the hash table. Let’s unpack what this code means:

  • buckets is a private variable in the MyHashMap class
  • It is an array (or table) of Collection<Node> objects, where each Collection of Nodes represents a single bucket in the hash table
  • Node is a private helper class we give that stores a single key-value mapping. The starter code for this class should be straightforward to understand, and should not require any modification
  • java.util.Collection is an interface which most data structures inherit from, and it represents a group of objects. The Collection interface supprots methods like add to the group, remove from the group, and iterate over a group. Many data structures in java.util implement Collection, including ArrayList, LinkedList, TreeSet, HashSet, PriorityQueue, and many others. Note that because these data structures implement Collection, we can assign them to a variable of static type Collection with polymorphism
  • Therefore, our array of Collection<Node> objects can be instantated by many different types of data structures, e.g. LinkedList<Node> or ArrayList<Node>. Please start with LinkedList<Node>, and make sure your code generalizes!
  • When creating a new Collection<Node>[] to store in our buckets variable, be aware that in Java, you cannot create an array of parameterized type. Collection<Node> is a parameterized type, because we parameterize the Collection class with the Node class. Therefore, the expression new Collection<Node>[size] is illegal, for any given size. To get around this, you should instead create a new Collection[size], where size is the desired size. The elements of a Collection[] can be a collection of any type, like a Collection<Integer> or a Collection<Node>. For our purposes, we will only add elements of type Collection<Node> to our Collection[].

Each of the MyHashMap*Buckets classes instantiates buckets with a different type of data structure. For example, MyHashMapLLBuckets instantiates buckets with a new LinkedList<Node>(). The mechanism by which this happens is a factory method protected Collection<Node> createBucket(), which simply returns a data structure that implements Collection. For MyHashMap.java, you can choose any data structure you’d like. For example, if you choose LinkedList, the body of createBucket would simply be:

protected Collection<Node> createBucket() {
	return new LinkedList<>();
}

Instead of creating new bucket data structures with the new operator, you must use the createBucket method instead. This might seem useless at first, but it allows the MyHashMap*Buckets.java classes to override the createBucket method and provide different data structures as each of the buckets. Then, we end up with multiple different classes (MyHashMapTSBuckets.java MyHashMapPQBuckets.java, etc.) that all use your implementation in MyHashMap but they provide different types for the buckets (TreeSet, PQ, etc.). We can even have a hash table that has buckets that are other hash tables (MyHashMapHSBuckets.java)! We can then directly compare each of the MyHashMap*Buckets.java classes directly in a speed test similar to the one you saw in Lab 7.

We provide additional factory methods createTable to create the backing array of the hash table and createNode to create new Node objects as well. It’s okay if you use new operators to create the backing array and Node objects instead of the factory method, but we added them for uniformity.

Implementation Requirements #

You should implement the following constructors:

	public MyHashMap();
	public MyHashMap(int initialSize);
	public MyHashMap(int initialSize, double loadFactor);

Some additional requirements for MyHashMap are below:

  • Your hash map should initially have a number of buckets equal to initialSize. You should increase the size of your MyHashMap when the load factor exceeds the set loadFactor. Recall that the load factor can be computed as loadFactor = N/M, where N is the number of elements in the map and M is the number of buckets. The load factor represents the amount of elements per bucket, on average. If initialSize and loadFactor aren’t given, you should set defaults initialSize = 16 and loadFactor = 0.75 (as Java’s built-in HashMap does)
  • You should handle collisions with separate chaining. You may not import any libraries other than ArrayList, LinkedList, Collection, HashSet, iterator and Set. This means that for MyHashMap.java, you should use start with LinkedList for the bucket type in MyHashMap.java. For more detail on how you should implement separate chaining, see the Skeleton Code setion above.
  • Because we use a Collection<Node>[] as our buckets, when implementing MyHashMap, you are restricted to using methods that are supported by the Collection interface. The only methods you will need are add, remove, and iterator. When you are searching for a Node in a Collection, simply iterate over the Collection, and find the Node whose key is .equal() to the key you are searching for
  • When resizing, make sure to multiplicatively resize, not additively resize. You are not required to resize down
  • Your MyHashMap operations should all be constant amortized time, assuming that the hashCode of any objects inserted spread things out nicely (recall: every Object in Java has its own hashCode() method). Note: hashCode() can return a negative value! Please take this into account when writing your code. Take a look at the lecture slides linked below for a hint on how to cleanly handle this case.
  • If the same key is inserted more than once, the value should be updated each time. You can assume null keys will never be inserted.

Testing #

You can test your implementation using TestMyHashMap.java. If you choose to implement the additional remove, keySet, and iterator methods, we provide tests in TestHashMapExtra.java. If you’ve correctly implemented generic Collection buckets, you should also be passing the tests in TestMyHashMapBuckets.java. The TestHashMapBuckets.java file simply calls methods in TestMyHashMap.java for each of the different map subclasses that implement a different bucket data structure. Make sure you’ve correctly implemented MyHashMap according to the Collection interface for TestHashMapBuckets.java to pass.

Before moving on from this section, be sure you’re passing the tests in TestMyHashMap.java and TestMyHashMapBuckets.java. These will be the tests within the autograder.

Resources #

You may find the following resources useful:

Optional: HashMap Speed Test #

There are two interactive speed tests provided in InsertRandomSpeedTest.java and InsertInOrderSpeedTest.java. Do not attempt to run these tests before you’ve completed MyHashMap. Once you’re ready, you can run the tests in IntelliJ.

The InsertRandomSpeedTest class performs tests on element-insertion speed of your MyHashMap, ULLMap (provided), and Java’s built-in HashMap. It works by asking the user for an input size N, then generates N Strings of length 10 and inserts them into the maps as <String, Integer> pairs.

Try it out and see how your data structure scales with N compared to the naive and industrial-strength implementations. Record your results in the provided file named lab8/speedTestResults.txt. There is no standard format required for your results, and there is no required number of data points.

Now try running InsertInOrderSpeedTest, which behaves similarly to InsertRandomSpeedTest, except this time the Strings in <String, Integer> key-value pairs are inserted in lexicographically-increasing order. Note that unlike Lab 7, your code should be in the rough ballpark of Java’s built in solution – say within a factor of 10 or so. What this tells us is that state-of-the-art HashMaps are relatively easy to implement compared to state-of-the-art TreeMaps. When would it be better to use a BSTMap/TreeMap instead of a HashMap? Discuss this with your labmates, and add your answer to speedTestResults.txt.

Optional: Change Bucket Types: Speed Test #

If you’ve correctly implemented generic Collection buckets, most of the work is done! We can directly compare the different data structures MyHashMap*Buckets.java. We provide speed/BucketsSpeedTest.java, which is an interactive test that queries the user for an integer L for the length of string to use on subsequent operations. Then, in a loop, it queries the user for an integer N, and runs a speed test on each of the five data structures:

  • MyHashMapALBuckets, which uses ArrayList buckets
  • MyHashMapLLBuckets, which uses LinkedList buckets
  • MyHashMapTSBuckets, which uses TreeSet buckets
  • MyHashMapPQBuckets, which uses PriorityQueue buckets
  • MyHashMapHSBuckets, which uses HashSet buckets

Try it out and compare how the different implementations scale with N. Discuss your results with your labmates, and record your responses in speedTestResults.txt.

You might notice that our implementation of MyHashMapTSBuckets and MyHashMapHSBuckets searches for a Node by iterating over the entire data structure. But from what we know, trees and hash tables support more efficient lookups than that. Would our hash table speed up if we were able to use a logarithmic search over the TreeSet or a constant-time search over the HashSet? You do not need to implement anything new here, just discuss with your labmates, and record your ideas in speedTestResults.txt.

More Optional Exercises #

This will not be graded, but you can still receive feedback on the autograder.

Implement the methods remove(K key) and remove(K key, V value), in your MyHashMap class. For an extra challenge, implement keySet() and iterator() without using a second instance variable to store the set of keys.

For remove, you should return null if the argument key does not exist in the MyHashMap. Otherwise, delete the key-value pair (key, value) and return value.

Lab Debrief and Submission Deliverables #

At the end of lab, your TA will go over the reference solution. This will be helpful if you haven’t finished the lab, since we don’t want you to be stuck working on lab too much outside of lab. (This is also an incentive for you to go to lab!)

Make sure to submit your completed MyHashMap.java, and submit through git and Gradescope as usual.

Last built: 2022-12-03 16:06 UTC